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So much faster than mail. We love it. Life is busy. Have spontaneous face-to-face conversations and really see how your loved ones are doing.

Gather friends and family, chat with your support or hobby group, collaborate with co-workers or fantasy football teammates. Each person can watch and respond when it works for them.

Speaking face to face is as easy as pressing "Start" and "Stop". Have fun with doodles and voice filters, too! Read more reviews 1.

On your own time Life is busy. The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city.

The date could correspond to the first mission of which Marco Polo speaks. If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources.

These conjectures seem to be supported by the fact that in addition to the imperial dignitary Saman the one who had arrested the official named "Boluo" , the documents mention his brother, Xiangwei.

According to sources, Saman died shortly after the incident, while Xiangwei was transferred to Yangzhou in — Marco Polo reports that he was moved to Hangzhou the following year, in It has been supposed that these displacements are due to the intention to avoid further conflicts between the two.

The sinologist Paul Pelliot thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration.

It may seem unlikely that a European could hold a position of power in the Mongolian empire. However, some records prove he was not the first nor the only one.

In his book, Marco mentions an official named "Mar Sarchis" who probably was a Nestorian Christian bishop , and he says he founded two Christian churches in the region of "Caigiu".

This official is actually mentioned in the local gazette Zhishun Zhenjian zhi under the name "Ma Xuelijisi" and the qualification of "General of Third Class".

Always in the gazette, it is said Ma Xuelijsi was an assistant supervisor in the province of Zhenjiang for three years, and that during this time he founded two Christian churches.

Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire.

In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1, personnel. Haw points out that Polo himself appears to state only that he had been an emissary of the khan , in a position with some esteem.

According to Haw, this is a reasonable claim if Polo was, for example, a keshig — a member of the imperial guard by the same name, which included as many as 14, individuals at the time.

Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan.

Another controversial claim is at the chapter , when the Book of Marvels states that the three Polos provided the Mongols with technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang ,.

Adonc distrent les. Then the two brothers and their son Marc said: "Great Lord, in our entourage we have men who will build such mangonels which launch such great stones, that the inhabitants of the city will not endure it and will immediately surrender.

Since the siege was over in , before Marco Polo had arrived in China for the first time, the claim cannot be true [] [] The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad and had Arabic names.

Therefore, this claim seems a subsequent addition to give more credibility to the story. A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen.

Polo wrote of five- masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships in fact had only three masts. Wood accused Marco Polo of taking other people's accounts in his book, retelling other stories as his own, or basing his accounts on Persian guidebooks or other lost sources.

However neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party, [98] and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale".

Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source, and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din.

Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until —11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book.

According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China.

Morgan writes that since much of what The Book of Marvels has to say about China is "demonstrably correct", any claim that Polo did not go to China "creates far more problems than it solves", therefore the "balance of probabilities" strongly suggests that Polo really did go to China, even if he exaggerated somewhat his importance in China.

In , the University of Tübingen Sinologist and historian Hans Ulrich Vogel released a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues, and argued that the evidence supports his presence in China because he included details which he could not have otherwise known.

Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts.

For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there.

Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness.

Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine , but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known.

Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo's description of the Far East to want to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations.

He never found the kingdom but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in , proving that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci — called "China". Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography , ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later.

That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery [the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano] was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father.

Though Marco Polo never produced a map that illustrated his journey, his family drew several maps to the Far East based on the wayward's accounts.

These collection of maps were signed by Polo's three daughters: Fantina, Bellela and Moreta. There is a legend about Marco Polo importing pasta from China; however, it is actually a popular misconception , [] originated with the Macaroni Journal , published by a food industries association with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States.

In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. The Marco Polo sheep , a subspecies of Ovis ammon , is named after the explorer, [] who described it during his crossing of Pamir ancient Mount Imeon in In , a three-masted clipper built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; the Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months.

Croatian state-owned shipping company 's Jadrolinija ship connecting Split with Ancona in Italy is named after Marco Polo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the trader and explorer. For other uses, see Marco Polo disambiguation. Italian explorer and merchant noted for travel to central and eastern Asia.

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century. Venice , Republic of Venice. Main article: The Travels of Marco Polo.

A miniature from Il Milione. This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter.

Please help improve this section by clarifying or removing indiscriminate details. If importance cannot be established, the section is likely to be moved to another article, pseudo-redirected , or removed.

Mario Eusebi, p. If this is not the case, a more likely date for their arrival is or , according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi.

Britannica , p. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton. Stubbs, Robert G. Istituto Geografico DeAgostini in Italian.

Marco Polo: Journey to the End of the Earth. Encyclopedia Britannica. The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated by Henry Yule. Edited and Annotated by Henri Cordier.

John Murray: London, Venezia [Tipi di P. Naratovich] — via Internet Archive. Birthplace of Marco Polo is archivally undetermined, but it is assumed that his ancestors came from Dalmatia.

II , Giunti, Venezia, Marco Polo. New Word City. Total History. The Life and Times of Marco Polo. Mitchell Lane Publishers.

A Critical Appraisal by I. The Travels of Marco Polo , p. New York: Penguin Books. For details, see, A. Retrieved November 25, Translated by John Frampton Second ed.

Marsden , Thomas Wright ed. Marco Polo and his Description of the World. History Today. Le Tellier Divisata con cinque cronologie.

Tomo primo Michele Cavalieri da Bergamo, maestro nella sagra teologia dello stesso Ordine, Con un catalogo de'cardinali Domenicani, e con cinque indici copiosissimi Internet Archive.

Roberg, "Die Tartaren auf dem 2. Konzil von Lyon ," Annuarium historiae conciliarum 5 , Reviews in History. Problems with Internal Evidence".

Bulletin of Sung and Yüan Studies. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. His birth was not recorded in the Venetian registers of births and not only that: the first document that connects Venice and his family is the same testament of his uncle Marco made yr.

Yet the Italian historiography considers that he was born in Venice and calls for the alleged Marco's paternal grandfather — Andrea Polo of San Felice whose, as we said, first mention is by G.

Italian historians often, due to lack of archives of the birth of Marco Polo in Venice, stress that certainly was born in the Venetian Republic since Dalmatia was then in its composition.

Journal of Marine and Island Cultures. Women and the Family in Chinese History. November 22, July The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

CRC Press. Jensen, "The World's most diligent observer. Haw: Marco Polo's China. A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan.

Routledge Studies in the Early History of Asia. London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0 1". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.

Viaggio ai confini del Medioevo", Collezione Le Scie. October 25, The Daily Telegraph. August 9, University of Tübingen.

Alpha Galileo. April 16, Archived from the original on May 3, Retrieved May 3, The New Observer. July 31, Science Daily. Archived from the original on March 20, Serventi, F.

Sabban La pasta. Storia e cultura di un cibo universale , VII. Pasta: The Story of a Universal Food. Translated by Shugaar, Antony.

New York: Columbia University Press. The Man Who Ate Everything. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved June 2, Retrieved January 29, In Rodney P.

Carlisle ed. Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society.

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